Information On The London

Anglo-Saxon And Viking Period London

London, Lundenwic or Lundenberg, enlarged and finally called Lundenburh or Lundenburg (both forms are used by the 11th century) was probably the administrative centre from which the territory of the Middle Saxons was administered. Archaeological evidence indicates that there may have been a royal palace on the site of Westminster Abbey from the mid-7th century. The city was ravaged in the mid-9th century during a renewed bout of warfare between the Mercians and West Saxons led to London becoming a frontier town for King Alfred's Wessex.

It recovered to some extent thereafter, although it never regained its former prosperity, The London NET ( This period has left the city with an unusual mixture of two cultures; the Roman and the Anglo-Saxon. Many artifacts from this period are preserved in the Museum of London, whose collections are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world. Also surviving from antiquity are two literary works: a poem, Catullus'Carmen XVI, which contains the first known reference to Londoners, and a portion of Gildas '6th century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the destructive guerrilla war waged by Ambrosius Aurelianus on behalf of the Britons in this period.

Place-name evidence suggests that the surrounding area was occupied by Saxon migrants, and cemeteries from this period indicate a settlement hinterland. Lundenwic probably developed due to the increased economic activity in the area from the Close of Roman Britain. The Anglo-Saxons named the settlement "London" (their word for Lundenwic)  although the name is said to be Celtic in origin. Early Anglo-Saxon settlement probably concentrated on Cornhill and the northern bank of the Thames, around Ludgate Hill.

Around 600, the city once again rose to some importance when Ethelbert, King of Kent, built a new minster church there, dedicated to St Paul. The church's original site has been excavated and is dated to the 690s, although was not complete until around 700. Lundenwic seems to have contained a marketplace and other economic activity. It was absorbed into the town-like port developed by Edwin of Northumbria after he established himself in the southeast of England in the second half of the 7th century.


Air transport in London is the largest in the world and one of its most important. Over 6,500 scheduled flights a day arrive to or depart from London's six international airports, making the city a major hub for international travel.  It is the premier centre for both domestic and international aviation, as the largest airspace in the world made up of 5 million square kilometres ((3 million sq mi) covers much of inner London and northern England.

London's six commercial airports form the world's second-largest concentration of international airlines after Dubai. The airports are all owned and operated by the government's Airports Commission via its subsidiary London Airports Authority (LAA). Publicly owned by Transport for London, the ODA is responsible for regulating fares and allocated departure and arrival slots at these airports. London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these.

Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights. This is a list of all commercial airports, sorted by the amount of traffic they handle annually. London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights.

There are six international commercial airports in the London area, serving 184 civil aircraft, with a combined total of 33. 6million passengers in 2015. There are also around fifty non-commercial airports or airfields, mostly serving general aviation. The Anglo-Saxons called the city Londinium; Lundenwic and Londinium became common in the 9th century. The name "London" is derived from the Old English form Ludnin, which means "pool", referring to the ancient pool between the Old & New Covent Garden.

Early Modern

The Reformation encouraged the spread of literacy and books through the population. In 1518, fur profits rose so high that the Guild decided to set up a dedicated building for the sale of furs. The Guildhall was rebuilt by Inigo Jones in the classical style between 1607 and 1610. Another Guildhall in Lower Thames Street, built by Thomas Gresham as the Bourse (1566–1570), also functioned as an exchange. It had a central courtyard, and an open timber framed structure based on threeinstar form known as a "Tudor lantern".

The Hanseatic kontor, Stalhof or Steelyard was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. London lay at the heart of England's economic expansion, and its population grew significantly during this period as people from the countryside moved in to take advantage of greater employment opportunities. London had about 34,000 inhabitants by 1524, making it the largest city in England not fully enclosed by walls. In 1381, the city was deeply affected by the Poll Tax riots, when thousands of citizens rose up against the levy of a poll tax that would require payment from all residents, including the poor.

By 1524 there were 51,000 people in London. It was also a vital cultural centre. London was transformed during the Elizabethan Era (1558–1603). Under Queen Elizabeth I, London became a world centre of diplomacy, Western theatre and English Renaissance literature, and saw the last great flourishing of the merchant empire. During this period, the wealth of London merchants was instrumental in financing both sides in the Thirty Years'War.

London was also a principal base for Spanish merchants. The Reformation also had adverse consequences for the economy, as most capital was now diverted into war effort, while trade suffered from a collapse in demand in Europe caused by extra taxation to pay for it. The economic downturn combined with outbreaks of the plague left London's population at around 60,000–70,000 by the turn of the century, and it would not surpass its pre-Black Death peak until the 17th century.

The Reformation Parliament of 1529 tried and executed Henry VIII's advisor Richard Empson and Henry's Lord Chancellor, Thomas More, for treason and heresy. They were both handed to the city authorities and "hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn", a popular public spectacle that began around 1576 as an entertainment, but by the 17th century had become a form of mass entertainment for crowds. Over the years, London has attracted a variety of nicknames.

Ethnic Groups

The 2011 census found that 7. 7 per cent of London's population was Black/African/Caribbean, 7. 4 per cent was Asian, and 4. 3 per cent of the population was Chinese or Other. Of the latter, by far the largest ethnic group were those classified as Other Asian (largely comprising those who identified with the "Asian or Asian British" subgroup), numbering at 1,165,204; and those classified as Other ethnic group numbered at 999,608 (comprising mainly foreign students).

A landmark study by Stephen J. Gould analysed the role of migration from Liverpool to New York in leading to these changes, dubbing the modern population of New York a "Hispanicisable" population derived from one. The White British population of London is estimated to have increased by 6,122 between 2001 and 2011, compared to an increase of 1,364 in Liverpool and 1,263 in Manchester. The 2011 census showed that London's under-18s  comprised only 33.

8 per cent of the city's population, compared with 44. 9 per cent in Northern Ireland, 49. 2 per cent in Scotland and 50. 3 per cent in Wales. According to the 2001 census, almost 77 per cent of Londoners were christened as Christians, with 52 per cent professing to have Anglican affiliations and 20 per cent saying they were Roman Catholic. London also has small but significant Asian, Black and Mixed-race communities.

In 2011, the London-wide Any Relation Index was the highest of the six regions recorded with 84. 5 per cent; the North East had 68. 9 per cent, compared to 85. 0 per cent for England as a whole; 72. 1 per cent in Wales, 76. 8 per cent in Scotland and 68. 4 per cent in Northern Ireland according to the 2011 Census. Ethnic groups. Asian Londoners make up 14. 4 per cent of the population, Black Londoners make up 8.

9 per cent, and Mixed-Race Londoners make up 2. 9 per cent; less than 1 per cent each are categorised as "Arab", "Chinese" and "Other ethnic group". In addition, 12 per cent of Londoners were born outside of the United Kingdom. A foreign-born population of 13. 2 per cent of the total also exists within London with a further 7. 7 per cent born in a UK overseas territory, These figures are slightly lower than that of many other global cities, where the foreign-born population can be around or above 20 per cent of the city's inhabitants.


The bridge was built of oak piles (which still exist) and morticed beams of a now rare tree, Pterocarya novelty (which does not). Two tenon at each end of the beams still exist on the south bank, but not on the north bank. A modern caisson was found in the 2008/09 excavations to have been constructed between the two piles of the central pier, which was made from an oak tree felled in pre-Roman times.

It is thought that the piles are those of a previous structure, either a causeway for pedestrians, or part of a stone bridge built by the Romans to take vehicles. The first permanent bridges across the Thames in London were several drawbridges. A wooden bridge built upstream of Westminster Bridge as early as the 11th century was replaced in stone in the 14th century, and was called London Bridge. It was rebuilt several times.

The existing bridge, which had become dilapidated by the 18th century, was demolished and replaced in wood in 1739-40, and rebuilt in stone between 1896 and 1924. In the 11th century the bridge was rebuilt and widened. The central arches were probably built at this time. A ramp supported a wooden roadway, with timber buildings on each side of the bridge. It was probably rebuilt in stone by Isabella of France, widow of Edward II, in 1313.

This wooden-roofed building was destroyed by fire in 1428, according to John Stow's description. A bridge was built across the Thames about 300 BC and smaller bridges were added in the Roman period. Londinium was founded c. 200 AD. The first London Bridge dates from around 120 AD and linked Old London to Southwark, a district of London on the south bank of the river ( Lambeth was the southernmost district until 1889).

The first wooden Londinium was by the present site of Waterloo Bridge. However, the north side of the river was vulnerable to flooding and needed further defences, so a second complete city was built to the south. In between the two cities there was a bridge with a drawbridge. [ citation needed]. The first bridge on the site was built by the Romans, and was probably wooden. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the bridge fell into disrepair and eventually a downstream timber bridge replaced it.

Middle Ages

The City of London, as a county corporate, was in existence by 1134. It was given its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II. The city has a separate mayor and corporation, as well as some degree of self-governance. However, it is not itself a city, and the twenty-five men who historically comprised its membership and control the Corporation are not elected, but remain as officials chosen to represent the “city’s interests”; there were around 7,500 businesses in the City of London in 2006.

By contrast, at the beginning of the 17th century the combined "city" and "borough" had only about 300 houses. The rebuilt London Wall did not extend as far as the Tower of London, which was outside the city limits. The area to the west of the city became known as the 'West Within', while that to the east of the city became known as the 'East Without'. The area between them was largely open fields, and was already being developed; by 1080, more than 30 churches had been established in the eastern suburbs alone.

Such development at that time is likely to have come about through private building work rather than royal initiative, with those who gained from it including abbots and monasteries. The Normans began work on the White Tower, which was a square keep, similar to that of a motte-and-bailey castle, with massive walls up to 20 feet thick. The nearby buildings of the City and liberties of Westminster were protected by a wall. The main entrance to the City of London was originally located at Aldersgate, one of the seven gates in the London Wall, now situated between St.

Martin's Le Grand and Fetter Lane. William appointed a new Bishop of London and had a "Palace of Woodhenge" built at what is today Bushy Park. A thousand years later, the Tournai Peace Treaty was signed in 1360. It became the model for treaties throughout Europe, and as late as 1814 its wording was being used to regulate European affairs. Before we get onto beauty though, let’s start with the history.

Museums, Art Galleries And Libraries

The popularity of these sites and the need to get around London has influenced transport developments in the English capital. The London Underground's District Line runs below ground in central London, serving 44 stations, including most major museums. Many of these stations are Connection Points (hub stations) for the Underground and National Rail networks. London is also home to a number of Tramlink stops from which local trams serve destinations including Croydon, Wimbledon and Crystal Palace.

These institutions were followed by the National Gallery, in 1824; the National Portrait Gallery and the Tate Gallery, in 1857; The Royal Academy, in 1868; the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum, both in South Kensington, 1889; Imperial College of Science and Technology, and The Courtauld Institute of Art, 1955; and more recently the Tate Modern, in 2000. As of 2008, there are fourteen publicly-funded national museums in London, with three more in the pipeline.

Port And River Boats

Before 1989 the entire tidal section of the Thames, including London Basin, was legally a Separate Coasting Area, with its own regulations and quota. London tidal section has often suffered from severe congestion: in the 1920s, 200 shiploads a day entering the Port of London caused delays and congestion that led to the development of the Grain Race; in 1921 it was estimated that only three per cent of ships were able to pass between Gravesend and Southend each day during a high spring tide.

In response traffic passes through Docklands has been diverted away from Millwall Docks (to enable its redevelopment as housing) and more than 20m tonnes are expected to be re-routed from. The Thames is navigable to larger, ocean-going vessels as far as the Pool of London at Greenwich, in practice this is just East London off the North Circular Road and downstream of Tower Bridge. On the north bank only a few vessels dare to navigate as far west as Albert Bridge and on the south bank there are few who would want to tackle Canary Wharf.

The tidal river is not navigable to such vessels without risking damage to engines, but is frequented by small boats; pleasure craft can access the Thames via several canals and natural river links. Although the import and export of goods from the United Kingdom takes place largely through ports in England, Scotland, and Wales, there are a few goods which are handled exclusively through London. Cargoes of crude oil from Russia to the UK are almost always shipped through the Port of Hull; until 2004, all such oil was carried by ship down the length of the Thames to be loaded on tankers there.

Diplomatic relations between the UK and certain other countries require they use airports in London for flights to and from those countries. The Thames is navigable to big ocean-going vessels as far as the Pool of London at its most northerly point, although the increasing depth of water further north has meant that most larger ships now call at Hull, Liverpool, or Glasgow, then discharge part of their cargo and proceed to the mouth of the Thames.

The Thames is England's most important conurbation by value of goods handled. The Port of Liverpool handles 32. 4 million tonnes of cargo each year. Other major ports include Grimsby, in North East Lincolnshire, and Ipswich, which both handle around five million tonnes. Water transport plays a smaller role than air and road transport in the UK national transport system, moving approximately 4. 6million passengers and 1. 1million tonnes of freight per year.


Previously, there had been a stone and timber bridge in the same general location. The Great Fire of London destroyed most of it in 1666, and it was rebuilt as a brick structure with five arches, [ citation needed ] but this was also destroyed by the 1884 flood. The present bridge was designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette and erected between 1887 and 1894. It is constructed of three main sections each made of three huge pre-fabricated concrete blocks (concrete being a Bazalgette speciality).

The blocks were fabricated at Barking Creek on the River Lea, about 6 miles (10 km) away to ensure authenticity—although it was actually easier for them to be delivered there via. The remains of wooden piling from some kind of structure were found nearby in 1860, but may have been washed down river during a flood. In 2005, the lower foundations of a bridge were found, again on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge.

This bridge either crossed the Thames to an island near to the south bank between Battersea and Chelsea or reached the same island by crossing a previous incarnation of Millbank. On this basis it has been speculated that there was a ford near the present crossing and that this was succeeded by a stepping stone ford after which bridges were built at Millbank (north of Vauxhall Bridge) and Vauxhall. The first permanent bridges across the Thames in London were built during the 18th century.

 The city's first bridge across the Thames was Southwark Bridge, built in 1750–51 to designs by Robert Mylne, a Scottish engineer who had worked with (and later became) Sir Robert Taylor, founding partner in the architectural practice now known as Basil Spence & Partners. The bridge was probably built between 1800 and 1500 BC. It is thought to have been a crossing for pedestrians and horse-drawn traffic. The foundations of the bridge were found during excavations in preparation for the construction of Vauxhall Bridge.

The foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4900 BC and 4700 BC, were found in the Thames in 1849 on the north bank at Lambeth. They are managed by eight different bodies, six of which are within the remit of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), and two of which are sponsored by other government departments but are nonetheless entitled to direct funding from DCMS. Pauls. (Wikipedia).

Roman London

The Roman city was rebuilt in AD 70 and settled with veterans. Excavations have revealed a large complex near the east corner of the present-day city centre, at the junction of Northgate Street and New Street known as the "Four Feet High" walls after the foundations were discovered during excavations. The position was strategic, as it lay at the junction of two main roads into Colchester: one from via Pantheon (Balkerne Gate) to the south-west, another from British Camp (Great Chesterford) and Durovernum (Canterbury) to the north-east both roads met at the hub of the city, where St Peter's Street and Christchurch Avenue meet today.

There are no records to say when the Romans came back to Ludgate Hill. They may have kept this part of their defence system in a state of readiness for possible use, but there is no archaeological evidence to indicate this. Roman London was occupied as late as AD 409, but by 410 the province of Britannia was abandoned by Rome in favor of the defence line along the Ledwyche (Lea) river. The best preserved section of Roman wall in Britain can be found at SP636374 near Potsgrove, about 3 kilometres (2 miles) south east of the present county town of Cambridge.

London became a provincial capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and hence of the Empire. The city was rebuilt in stone rather than timber at that time, and the Temple of Claudius (the largest in Britannia) and the theatre below it were built on the site of the Boudican fire. The town suffered setbacks: Emperor Nero considered making London his eastern capital and it was also raided by pirates.  In AD 120, construction began on the defensive walls.

The Romans founded Londinium, a settlement on the current site of the City of London around  43 AD. Its bridge across the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Britain. Londinium was one of the four cities of the "Grand Tour", visited by 18–20th century literary giants, including Byron and Dickens. East of Roman London was a settlement called Lundenwic ("London market").

From the 5th century, this developed into Aldwych ("old market-place"), which, despite its name, lay on the west bank of the River Fleet. The name "Aldwych" is preserved today in the name of Aldwych Underground station and also in that of "Aldwych", a street which lies immediately to the east. The settlement was re-established soon after by the Roman Army and its local garrison, which remained until at least AD 74. Londinium represented a major settlement upgrade for the Roman Empire and underwent a period of sustained urbanisation.


Sport has formed part of London culture for many centuries. In the later 19th century, organised sports were played in parks such as Finsbury Park, and later theAdventure playground, Crystal Palace National Sports Centre, and Wembley Stadium (the latter being the site of England football matches and the Football Association headquarters). Large venues in London include The O2 arena and the London Stadium, home to West Ham United F. C., Queens Park Rangers F.

C., Chelsea F. C., Leyton Orient F. C., Harrow Chequers RLFC and English Institute of Sport. There are numerous smaller venues for other sports including Chelsea FC's Stamford Bridge stadium; There are also many sports grounds used by schools across London, including. Sport in the United Kingdom has a long history. During the 19th century it developed as a means of expression for nationalism, which was often defined in terms of Britain and Englishness.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England, with the exception of football, the responsibility of the Football Association and rugby union, the responsibility of the Rugby Football Union. Sport in London is governed by the London organising committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) and the London Summits. Major sporting venues include Wembley Stadium, Twickenham Stadium, Arsenal Stadium, the Emirates Stadium, Craven Cottage, Stamford Bridge, The O2 Arena and Wimbledon.

London has been one of the host cities of the Summer Olympic Games on three occasions: 1908, 1948 and 2012. Sport plays an important role in London life; the city is home to a number of major sporting institutions and venues, including Wembley Stadium, Lords Cricket Ground, the London Palladium, Twickenham Stadium, the London Aquatics Centre and the O2 Arena. Sport is a major part of the culture of London—there are many popular sports, including English football, and non-English sports, such as cricket, rugby league, rugby union, golf, tennis, boxing, badminton, rowing, and track and field.


London is a walking city, but visitors may be surprised by the absence of pedestrian-only streets in the central area. The fashion retailer Burberry published a survey in 2007 stating that 89% of Londoners did not own a car, which is one of the highest rates of carlessness in any major city in the world. Walking is an ideal way to explore the city. For gentle strolls, there are many “beautiful streets” around London. A good number of these streets also provide excellent views, such as those found in Bloomsbury, or Mayfair (for example Grosvenor Square and its neighbour Mount Street).

There are a lot of beautiful walking venues in London. If you decide to go on a walk, you have several choices of venue. You might choose to walk at Wimbledon Common or Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park or Hampstead Heath. Or you could stroll along canals and disused railway tracks. At its height, the city may have had a population of around 45,000. Church not your thing? Don’t worry, there are plenty of other religions in Perth.

Laura Grace

Laura Grace

Main Contributor and Editor of The London NET